Pathoanatomical autopsy (gr. autopsy, auton — it-yourself, opsis — look, lat, section, sectire— less, reveal) is a comprehensive study of a fallen or dead animal for the purpose of verifying the accuracy of in vivo diagnosis, establishment of morphological changes in organs and causes his death.
In our country the state veterinary service in accordance with Soviet and veterinary legislation is science-based comprehensive system of preventive measures for development of livestock, warning the emergence and spread of animal diseases, many of which are dangerous for humans. When disease occurrence is crucial to the timely and accurate diagnosis on which to base targeted treatment and preventive measures for health improvement of animals. Post-mortem autopsy of the fallen or slaughtered animals is one of methods of diagnostics of infectious, parasitic and noncontagious illnesses of animals. Unopened corpses of animals that died of anthrax, glanders, and some other anthropozoonotic diseases. To exclude or confirm these diseases, conduct laboratory studies. When establishing anthropozoonotic be destroyed along with the skin.
The value of pathological diagnosis has become even more relevant with the enlargement, specialization and mechanization of livestock farms, so that timely diagnosis helps prevent large economic losses.
In medical practice post-mortem examination held by doctors — pathologists (protectora), constituents of special service. Veterinary protection of livestock carry out veterinary doctors and medical assistants, who perform all veterinary activities, including sectional work. At the departments of pathological anatomy veterinary institutes, diagnostic laboratories and factories for the production of meat and bone meal (veterinary and sanitary salvage plants) are doctors-pathologists.
The theoretical framework of a comprehensive post-mortem examination of dead animals has been enriching the science with new data about the cause of the disease, gives an opportunity to assess the nature of morphological changes of all organs and systems, promotes materialistic ideas about the etiology, the pathogenesis and nature of human and animal diseases.
Modern pathological research and diagnosis in General, is complex. Such analyses take into account data of anamnesis, epidemic situation the first symptoms of the disease. In necessary cases, when the pathologist is not enough economic data to reveal the essence of disease and diagnosis, carry out additional depending on the indications patologicheskie, bacteriological, virological, Toxicological and biochemical research. In scientific and diagnostic purposes increasingly is practiced in vivo morphological studies bioinnova, operational, experimental material and materials of meat processing plants and slaughterhouses. These studies with the use of sophisticated and accurate techniques (histochemical, electron microscopic, autoradiographic, etc.) reveal the dialectical unity of structure and function of organisms, the relationship of physiology and pathology, General and local processes of the organism and the external environment.
Pathoanatomical autopsy is performed not only for diagnosis of disease and study of organs, but also to verify the correctness and effectiveness of therapeutic and preventive measures and forensic veterinary examination. In the latter case, it is conducted as directed by the investigating authorities and in the presence of their representative. Pathologoanatomic-ski research method widely used in the development of research problems, as well as the veterinary practice for evaluation of wholesomeness of products of animal origin.
Depending on the purpose distinguish PATOLOGOANATOMICHESKOE: diagnostic, research, forensic, veterinary, etc. In any case, the autopsy is carried out as fully as possible and as early as possible after the death or slaughter of the animal, as in the warm time of the year already in the first days after the death of the animal due to cadaveric decomposition many lifetime changes difficult or impossible to install.
In scientific and practical purposes in a special section of the book describes the most common non-contagious, infec operating and parasitic diseases. While their description special attention is given to the characteristic pathological changes, pathological and laboratory diagnosis.
The manual is written according to the programme approved by the Directorate higher and secondary agricultural education of the Ministry of agriculture of the USSR on 10 October 1976 for agricultural higher educational institutions on a speciality 1507 — “veterinary medicine”. Intended for students of resident and correspondence course veterinary universities and faculties, practical veterinarians and employees of veterinary laboratories and factories for the production of meat and bone meal.