In Lapland, as domestic cattle do not use horses, because they are absolutely meaningless to life in the climatic conditions of the area. If we talk about other animals – large horned and small cattle, occasionally the Sami people are buying goats, cows or sheep on the warm summer season in order to consume their milk. In winter, they have to cut into the meat and fur, because to feed the cattle and care for him very problematic.
Traditionally, important for the residents of the Lapland animals, which are not found outside the country are the reindeer “rangiferi”. It’s a Latin name of a deer appeared from the Swedish word “rengi”, “rangi”, which are often on a par with say “rheen” to understand what people are saying about Northern reindeer. The word rangi or raengi not of Sami origin, as the reindeer-means is called “Herki” or “Puatze”.
The main difference between reindeer can is that on his head instead of two, is three horns. I mean of course not that the third horn growing out of my head, no. This is the offshoot that grows from the horns. It happens that the horns in the deer – four. That is, from kathipara grows forward through the process. This characteristic reindeer and one of the main differences it from others.
On the horns of a reindeer is down, this becomes especially noticeable in the time of their shifts. In addition, the reindeer is distinguished by the fact that his legs are much shorter than the average deer and a little thicker. We can say that the feet of a deer similar to mad cow. Hooves they also round and split in two, as can be seen in bulls.
The color of the reindeer differs from the usual, mostly it is grey with an ashy shade. White spots are on the sides, on the withers and belly of the animal. At the bottom of the neck reindeer grow long enough hair, as can be seen, for example, a goat. But it cannot be called ruminants, like deer – artiodactyls. These are wild animals, live in herds, and still they can be found in the woods or on the field of Lapland. Tamed offspring could be called Pets, they are docile, kind and obedient. Lapland they quietly and peacefully grazing on pasture in large herds.
In Lapland you can meet a completely different, third type of reindeer. It is a hybrid of wild and domestic animal.
Mating reindeer Matveev day takes place on or near it. After that, females “waiiar” will carry the pregnancy to forty weeks, so to come out, usually in may. Reindeer feed their young milk and are always under the open sky. After the kids grow up and get stronger, they go out on pasture where they eat grass and moss. Initially, calves are born brown, and only after a while fade and change the shade. Maximum growth they manage to achieve to four years.
Adult reindeer are trained to all kinds of chores and work. Some hitch in the harness, the other serves for transportation of the bales and Luggage, selecting the most cooperative individuals. Reindeer Hawking a year later.
The process of milking only once a day, the rest goes to feed the calves. Milk the consistency is so thick and oily that it looks like sour cream, is a very useful and nutritious. Such milk makes up a large part of the diet of the Saami: brewed and is prepared from cheese.
The Saami lot of respect and cherish their deer, because they play a big role in people’s lives. The Saami protect them from attacks of wild animals, because I try to find good pasture.
In summer, caribou eat the grass, which at this time of the year on pastures in abundance: leaves, bushes and so on. In other seasons they feed on the white moss, which grows everywhere in Lapland. It should be noted that even in the cold season, winter, deer manage to get food from under the snow. They do it with his hooves, loosening the snow or the snow cover.
The worst enemies of the reindeer are wolves. Even the fact that the deer are trying to fight back the horns may not always save them from a bad fate. And of course, it is worth remembering that the deer once a year there is a change of horns. They shed the most branched and large, which could protect them, while new horns grow very slowly.
Live reindeer approximately twelve to thirteen years. This unique animal, which simultaneously replace livestock such as: cow, horse and sheep. Help Sami to survive in difficult conditions, and are reliable assistants. Due to the fact that reindeer a lot of useful qualities, the Saami try not to have other animals. The exception is dogs, which play the role of guard huts, paddocks, pastures. Go with the Saami hunting.